April 1918

Phase two of Ludendorff‘s spring offensive sees the Germans attack in Flanders. White victory in the Finnish Civil War. The Red Baron‘s last flight. The flu arrives in Europe. Gavrilo Princip dies in prison. The former Tsar arrives in Ekaterinburg.

1/4/1918 Britain forms the RAF, the world’s first independent air force

2/4/1918 Azeris massacred in Baku

4/4/1918 As Foch’s star rises Ludendorff’s attention shifts towards Flanders

5/4/1918 Ludendorff’s first offensive grinds to a halt

6/4/1918 Finland’s Reds smashed at Tampere

8/4/1918 Austria-Hungary’s poor welcome for its returning POWs

9/4/1918 Phase two: German stormtroopers smash the British and Portuguese in Flanders

10/4/1918 Britain reels from Germany’s Flanders offensive

10/4/1918 Kornilov decides to clear the Reds from Ekaterinodar

11/4/1918 Crisis in Flanders: Haig’s “Backs to the Wall” order

12/4/1918 A curious incident in the west of Ireland

12/4/1918 Britain retreats to the gates of Ypres

13/4/1918 Counter-revolutionary leader Kornilov killed at Ekaterinodar

13/4/1918 German troops storm Helsinki

14/4/1918 The Sixtus Affair: Emperor Karl’s double-dealing loses him a foreign minister and the trust of Germany

15/4/1918 Transjordan: with ineffectual French help, Arab rebels attack Ma’an

18/4/1918 Transjordan: Arab failure at Ma’an

19/4/1918 As influenza arrives on the Western Front German efforts slacken

21/4/1918 The Red Baron’s last patrol

21/4/1918 Nationalist and Catholic Ireland unites against conscription

22/4/1918 Cracow: pogroms and inter-communal violence

22/4/1918 The Transcaucasian Democratic Federal Republic joins the family of nations

23/4/1918 Ireland strikes against conscription as London prepares a crackdown

23/4/1918 The Ostend and Zeebrugge Raids: a failed attempt to bottle up U-boats

24/4/1918 The first tank battle

25/4/1918 German losses on the Somme, gains in Flanders

28/4/1918 Gavrilo Princip dies

28/4/1918 The Austro-Hungarian army’s nationalities problem

29/4/1918 Vyborg: victory for Finland’s Whites tainted by mass murder

29/4/1918 The Hetman: Germany’s puppet leader of Ukraine

29/4/1918 Germany’s last attack in Flanders

30/4/1918 Another British attack across the Jordan goes awry

30/4/1918 The UB-85’s mission of failure comes to an embarrassing end

30/4/1918 The former Tsar arrives in the House of Special Designation

see also:

March 1918

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image sources:

British troops blinded by gas at an advanced dressing station near Bethune on 10 April 2018 (Wikipedia)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: “With Our Backs To The Wall”)

March 1918

Ludendorff‘s spring offensive smashes the British. Germany’s supergun shells Paris. A new strain of influenza appears in a US army camp. Germany and Austria-Hungary go hungry.

3/3/1918 Brest-Litovsk: Germany and Russia agree a peace treaty

4/3/1918 Private Gitchell takes ill

5/3/1918 Germany’s food crisis

6/3/1918 John Redmond dies, once Ireland’s leading politician, now almost an irrelevance

7/3/1918 Germany prepares to intervene in Finland’s civil war

8/3/1918 Bombing Paris, preparing for the spring offensive

11/3/1918 The food crisis eating at the Austro-Hungarian Empire

12/3/1918 Turkey recovers Erzurum and presses on towards the Caucasus

14/3/1918 Trotsky takes over as commander of the Red Army

18/3/1918 Looting the occupied Italian zone

20/3/1918 Eve of Armageddon

21/3/1918 The blow falls: German stormtroopers smash the British

21/3/1918 New German weapons

23/3/1918 The Kaiser and Hindenburg visit the scene of victory

23/3/1918 The Paris gun

24/3/1918 German success causes Allied nerves to fray

25/3/1918 Haig feels the strain

26/3/1918 Foch takes command

26/3/1918 The Czechoslovak Legion: marooned in Russia

26/3/1918 Ludendorff targets Amiens

27/3/1918 Allenby pushes towards Amman while he can

27/3/1918 Ludendorff’s offensive starts to run out of steam?

28/3/1918 Finland’s Whites attack Red Tampere

28/3/1918 As German losses mount, Ludendorff’s assault on Arras fails

28/3/1918 Trotsky’s big idea: recruiting Tsarist officers into the Red Army

29/3/1918 Calvary: the Paris Gun kills 90 attendees of Good Friday service

30/3/1918 Britain retreats from Amman

30/3/1918 Moreuil Wood: Canadian cavalry stops the German advance

image sources:

German A7V tank advancing through Roye (Wikipedia: Spring Offensive)

map (Mental Floss, WWI Centennial: Avenging Angel—Operation Michael)

see also:

February 1918

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February 1918

Germany forces Soviet Russia to agree its peace terms. Red victories in Russia’s civil war. Britain extends the franchise to all men and many women.

3/2/1918 Austria-Hungary’s naval mutiny at Cattaro

4/2/1918 Bolshevism spreads to Ireland?

6/2/1918 Votes for (some) British women and all British men

10/2/1918 “No War, No Peace”: Trotsky’s bizarre coup de theatre

11/2/1918 Wilson’s Four Principles

14/2/1918 Russia adopts the Gregorian calendar

15/2/1918 Polish anger over Germany and Austria’s treaty with Ukraine

16/2/1918 “The Cult of the Clitoris”: a sinister plot revealed

16/2/1918 Lithuania declares independence

18/2/1918 Germany pushes into Russia

19/2/1918 A new commander for the British army

21/2/1918 Falkenhayn, unlikely saviour of Palestine’s Jewish community

22/2/1918 Turmoil in Petrograd as the German advance continues

23/2/1918 The Ice March: the White Army retreats from Rostov

24/2/1918 Lenin accepts the Germans’ final peace terms

25/2/1918 Lenin proclaims the Russian Civil War to be over

image sources:

Women factory workers in Manchester enjoying a break (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Britain Grants Women’s Suffrage)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Germans Reopen Eastern Offensive, Americans Support Unified Command)

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January 1918

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January 1918

Wilson publishes his Fourteen Points. Unrest in Germany and Austria-Hungary. Civil war in Finland.

1/1/1918 1918, year of decision?

3/1/1918 Hard times for Italian civilians and prisoners of war under Austria-Hungary

4/1/1918 French pacifist politician Joseph Caillaux arrested

8/1/1918 Wilson’s Fourteen Points

15/1/1918 Finland’s rival camps prepare for civil war

15/1/1918 Arab progress east of the Jordan

19/1/1918 Lenin shuts down the Constituent Assembly

19/1/1918 Discontent boils over in Austria-Hungary

26/1/1918 REVEALED: the sexual deviants sabotaging Britain’s war effort

27/1/1918 Civil war breaks out in Finland

28/1/1918 A wave of industrial unrest grips Germany

28/1/1918 The Red Army formed

31/1/1918 German strikes suppressed, trouble-makers sent to the front

image sources:

Labouring party travels by train in Flanders (Histomil Historica: WW1 Narrow gauge train lines in the great war, Trench Railways France & Belgium)

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December 1917

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December 1917

Britain takes Jerusalem. Russia agrees an armistice with Germany and starts negotiations towards a peace treaty. The Bolsheviks consolidate their power. Australia rejects conscription. War brings famine to East Africa.

2/12/1917 Using unconventional methods, the Bolsheviks assert their power over the State Bank and the army

6/12/1917 Finland declares independence again

6/12/1917 The Halifax Explosion: a Canadian city devastated

7/12/1917 Cambrai: a bloody draw but a German victory on points

9/12/1917 Jerusalem falls to the British

9/12/1917 Romania throws in the towel

11/12/1917 Allenby arrives in Jerusalem

13/12/1917 Motuihe jailbreak: a German pirate busts loose

15/12/1917 Russia and Germany agree an armistice

16/12/1917 Turkey’s extermination of the Armenians

17/12/1917 Canada’s conscription election

18/12/1917 Russia and Turkey agree an armistice

19/12/1917 Russia’s voters reject the Bolsheviks

19/12/1917 Britain attempts to close the Channel to U-boats

20/12/1917 Australia votes against conscription again

20/12/1917 The Cheka: Soviet Russia’s political police force

21/12/1917 Germany’s sea wolf Luckner at bay

22/12/1917 As civil war begins in Russia, Soviet and German delegates meet at Brest-Litovsk

25/12/1917 Creeping authoritarianism in Russia

26/12/1917 Brest-Litovsk: Trotsky spins out the peace talks

30/12/1917 Germany and Austria’s winter of hunger

31/12/1917 Chaos in Trebizond as the Russian army disintegrates

31/12/1917 The horrors of war in German East Africa

image sources:

Allenby arrives in Jerusalem on foot (Wikipedia: the Battle of Jerusalem)

New Zealand officers celebrate Christmas on the Western Front (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Last Christmas At War)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Armistice on the Eastern Front)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1917

November 1917

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November 1917

Red October: the Bolsheviks seize power in Russia. Britain pushes into Palestine. The Balfour Declaration. The muddy hell of Passchendaele winds down. Caporetto ends with the Italians thrown back to the Piave. Cambrai: triumph of the tanks, then the Germans strike back.

1/11/1917 Allenby prepares to strike against Gaza

1/11/1917 A new German Chancellor

2/11/1917 Caporetto: the unstoppable Teutons cross the Tagliamento

5/11/1917 Mesopotamia: Britain takes Tikrit

6/11/1917 Rapallo: Allied leaders demand Cadorna’s head

6/11/1917 Kerensky’s failed attempt to crush the Bolsheviks

6/11/1917 Passchendaele finally falls to the Canadians

7/11/1917 Gaza falls to Allenby

7/11/1917 The Bolsheviks seize power in Petrograd

7/11/1917 Lawrence brings the Arab Revolt to Syria

9/11/1917 The Balfour Declaration: Britain gives away Palestine

9/11/1917 Caporetto: as the enemy advance falters, Italy sacks Cadorna

9/11/1917 The embattled Bolshevik government decrees land reform, bans the opposition press

11/11/1917 The Mons Conference: Ludendorff decides to attack the British next year

12/11/1917 As the Bolsheviks’ situation improves, Kerensky departs the stage

14/11/1917 Caporetto winds down as Italy manages to hold the enemy at the Piave

16/11/1917 Georges Clemenceau, France’s latest Prime Minister

17/11/1917 The Bolsheviks tighten their grip on power

18/11/1917 Allenby decides to press on towards Jerusalem

20/11/1917 Cambrai: triumph of the tanks

21/11/1915 Germany’s Zeppelin safari

23/11/1917 Germany’s Zeppelin safari aborted

23/11/1917 Cambrai: British progress stalls

25/11/1917 Negomano: Lettow-Vorbeck smashes the Portuguese

25/11/1917 Russia votes for a Constituent Assembly

26/11/1917 Sykes-Picot revealed: the world learns of British and French plans to carve up the Middle East

27/11/1917 Cambrai: as British attacks halt, the Germans prepare for a counterattack

29/11/1917 Fate catches up with German fighter pilot Erwin Böhme

30/11/1917 Cambrai: the Germans strike back

image sources:

poster (Robert Graham’s Anarchist Weblog – The Russian Tragedy: Alexander Berkman on the Russian Revolution)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: The Second Bolshevik Coup Attempt Succeeds)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1917

October 1917

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October 1917

Passchendaele mud. Austria-Hungary and Germany shatter the Italian army at Caporetto. Mata Hari executed. The British invasion of Palestine begins.

4/10/1917 The Sacchi decree: Italy combats the menace of defeatism

4/10/1917 Broodseinde: more Ypres attrition

8/10/1917 Trotsky elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet’s executive

9/10/1917 Poelcapelle: an Allied attack at Ypres fails

11/10/1917 Operation Albion: German troops seize the islands of Estonia

12/10/1917 ANZAC forces cut to pieces in failed attack on Passchendaele

13/10/1917 The Miracle of the Sun

14/10/1917 Austria feeds the guns while its people go hungry

15/10/1917 Mata Hari executed

16/10/1917 Enemy at the gates: Germany threatens Petrograd

17/10/1917 The Action off Lerwick: a daring German strike on a British convoy

18/10/1917 Mahiwa: Lettow-Vorbeck’s pyrrhic victory

23/10/1917 The Bolsheviks decide to seize power

24/10/1917 Caporetto: Austria and Germany strike back against Italy

25/10/1917 De Valera takes over Sinn Féin

25/10/1917 Caporetto: Italy reels from the enemy onslaught

26/10/1917 Brazil joins the Allies

26/10/1917 Canadians take their turn being killed at Passchendaele

26/10/1917 Caporetto: astonishing progress by the Germans and Austro-Hungarians

27/10/1917 La Malmaison: a French offensive on the Chemin des Dames

27/10/1917 Caporetto: Cadorna orders a withdrawal

27/10/1917 Fighter pilot Arthur Rhys-Davids fails to return

28/10/1917 Caporetto: as Italy reels, Britain and France promise help

30/10/1917 A new Italian prime minster spells danger for the army’s commander

31/10/1917 Beersheba: the great charge of the Australian cavalry

31/10/1917 Hard times for Germany’s U-boats

image sources:

mud (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: First Passchendaele, Rainbow Division Crosses the Atlantic)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Disaster At Caporetto)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1917

September 1917

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