16/8/1917 The Bolsheviks adopt an ominous new slogan #1917Live

Since the Provisional Government survived the crisis of the July Days Kerensky has been steadily consolidating his power. He has taken over from Prince Lvov as Prime Minister and formed a new government. This has a majority of socialists but these are mostly from the less radical wings of their parties and they are in the government as individuals rather than representatives of their parties. Kerensky’s government is also no longer tied to the programmes of the Petrograd Soviet.

Kerensky has appointed Kornilov to head the army, now in a chaotic state following the failure of the recent offensive. Kornilov wants to restore order in the army through iron discipline and has become popular in conservative circles. He demands more powers from Kerensky.

The Bolsheviks meanwhile are on the back foot, their leaders in exile or on the run, with Lenin accused of being a German spy. However the party remains active and continues to look to the future. Its congress meets today and discusses the way forward. Following the failure of the Petrograd Soviet to accept power in July, they abandon the slogan “All power to the Soviets”. In its place they are now for “Complete Liquidation of the Dictatorship of the Counterrevolutionary Bourgeoisie”.

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Lenin in disguise (Marxist Internet Archive: Russian Revolution)

3/8/1917 Kerensky shuts down the Finnish parliament but loses Czernowitz to Austria #1917Live

Kerensky has been emboldened by the recent failure of radicals to overthrow the Provisional Government. Now the Russian Prime Minister flexes his muscles, arranging for loyal troops to shut down Finland’s parliament, the Sejm. The Sejm had a socialist majority following elections earlier this year and it recently passed a resolution declaring Finland’s effective independence from Russia. This unilateral separation is unacceptable to Kerensky (and to many on both right and left in Russia); his shutting down of the unruly Finnish parliament is widely supported in Russia. Even in Finland many conservatives support the measure, fearing that without the link to Russia the Finnish socialists would be uncontrollable.
Kerensky finds it harder to bend the army to his will. He has appointed Kornilov as its commander in chief and accepted his demands for the reintroduction of the death penalty for desertion. But Kornilov’s attempts at repression are a failure. The army continues to disintegrate and the Germans and Austro-Hungarians continue their advance that began with their counter-attacks against Kerensky’s offensive. Now they recover the Galician town of Czernowitz, captured by the Russians in Brusilov’s offensive last year. The Russian army looks increasingly unable to prevent further advances by the enemy.

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The Eastern Front (Wikipedia)

Emperor Karl of Austria-Hungary salutes the liberators of Czernowitz (Wikipedia)

31/7/1917 Kerensky replaces Brusilov with Kornilov as army commander #1917Live

Something has gone very wrong with the Russian army. The recent offensive in Galicia has been a disaster, leading to a breakdown in discipline and a surge in desertions. Now the Germans and Austro-Hungarians are attacking in their turn and making great gains.

The offensive had been the brain child of Kerensky, then the war minister and now Prime Minister. Two days ago he met senior generals at the army headquarters in Mogilev, where they blamed the Revolution for the army’s plight. Denikin is particularly scathing of interference in the army’s affairs by the Petrograd Soviet and the invitation to insubordination he sees in its order that army units should elect soldiers’ committees and disobey orders that conflict with its own resolutions.

Now Kerensky decides that something will have to be done about the army. He dismisses Brusilov, thereby deflecting the blame for the offensive’s failure from himself. Brusilov’s replacement as commander in chief is Kornilov. Kornilov’s appointment is greeted with delight by those who feel that the Revolution has gone too far and that order needs to be restored. They hope that he will not merely restore order within the army but within society at large.

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Lavr Kornilov (Spartacus International)

22/7/1917 Alexander Kerensky, Russia’s new Prime Minister #1917Live

The crackdown following the recent unrest in Petrograd sees the Bolsheviks in some disarray. They have been blamed for all the trouble, their leader Lenin denounced as a German spy. Senior Bolsheviks now languish in jail or lead a precarious existence on the run. Lenin himself and Zinoviev have fled to Finland, still part of the Russian Empire but a place in which it is easier for them to lie low.

Meanwhile the rise of Kerensky continues. The recent political turmoil has all been too much for Prince Lvov, who now resigns as head of the Provisional Government, naming Kerensky as his successor. This young man of destiny now sets about forming his new cabinet.

Pressing matters however must be dealt with immediately. The scale of the disaster following the recent failed offensive against the Germans and Austro-Hungarians is now increasingly apparent, with enemy advances continuing and the Russian army gripped be desertion and indiscipline. Kerensky acts in an effort to stem the flood. General Kornilov is appointed commander of the South Western Front, where the army’s disintegration is most pronounced. Kornilov is known to be a tough general of the old school; if anyone can restore order, it is him. Starting as he means to go on, Kornilov demands the reintroduction of the death penalty for deserters.

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Alexander Kerensky (Wikipedia)

Lavr Kornilov (Wikipedia)

19/7/1917 Kerensky’s star rises as that of the Bolsheviks falls

In Petrograd the excitement of the last few days is fast abating. The radicals seeking to overthrow the Provisional Government have been dispersed. The Bolsheviks are blamed for inciting all the trouble, with Lenin, their leader, apparently revealed as a German agent. With their headquarters seized by the authorities Bolshevik leaders go on the run; those who fail to escape the dragnet find themselves imprisoned in the Peter and Paul Fortress.

Kerensky, the defence minister now deems it safe to return to the city (from which he fled when the trouble started). He is greeted with a guard of honour and presents himself as the national hero who has saved Petrograd by summoning the loyalist troops that quelled the revolt.

However, not everything is going Kerensky’s way. The great offensive he insisted the army stage against the Germans and Austro-Hungarians has been a disaster. Now the Germans are staging a counter-offensive in strength. The Russians are reeling from the onslaught, seemingly unable to offer meaningful resistance. It now looks as though Kerensky’s offensive has broken the Russian army.

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Alexander Kerensky (Wikipedia)

Russians attacked by German cavalry (Metropostcard: The Eastern Front  1917-1919)

18/7/1917 The revolutionary moment passes in Petrograd #1917Live

Yesterday Petrograd seemed to be enduring a second revolution, with radical workers, soldiers and Kronstadt sailors looking like they were about to overthrow the Provisional Government and hand power to the Petrograd Soviet. The radicals controlled the streets and there was no power in the city that could resist them. However the Soviet leaders declined the power offered to them and the revolutionary tide began to ebb.

Now the fortunes of the Provisional Government are once more in the ascendant. Loyalist troops arrive on the streets of Petrograd and begin to take control from the radicals.

The loyalist soldiers have been turned against the Bolsheviks by shocking reports now beginning to appear in the newspapers, alleging that Lenin is none other than a German agent, based on the testimony of an escapee from a German prisoner of war camp and on the Germans having let Lenin travel through Germany on his special train.

Realising that a reactionary crackdown is imminent the Bolshevik leadership prepares to go into hiding. The Kronstadt sailors are persuaded to abandon the Peter and Paul Fortress. They return to their base while demonstrators drift back to their homes and radical soldiers to their barracks.

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Loyalist troops (World Socialist Web Site: July 17–23: The “July Days”: Insurrection and counterrevolution in Petrograd)

A demonstration broken up (Spectator: Champagne and revolution in Petrograd, 1917)

17/7/1917 Petrograd: a second Russian Revolution?

In Petrograd morning readers of Pravda, the Bolshevik newspaper, are greeted by an unusual sight: the paper has a gap on the centre of its front page where the leading article has been cut out. Pravda went to press with a front page editorial urging readers to be wary of joining in the demonstrations that threaten to overthrow the Provisional Government. Overnight though senior Bolsheviks have had a change of heart, deciding that they must back the radical workers and soldiers (and their own rank and file) or risk losing all credibility with them. It is too late to change Pravda‘s editorial so they manually excise the now embarrassing article from all issues.

Meanwhile the streets are in the hands of the radicals. The Kronstadt sailors have arrived in town, boosting the numbers of the revolutionaries. Bolshevik leader Lenin has also returned to the city. The Kronstadters and other radicals flock to hear Lenin speak, expecting him to order them to seize power. But Lenin seems wrong-footed by the speed of events; his speech is curiously hesitant and disappoints his audience.

Intermittent fighting continues through the day as the radicals exchange fire with small numbers of army officer cadets, cossacks and other counter-revolutionaries. A revolutionary crowd assembles outside the Tauride Palace, where the Petrograd Soviet is based. The crowd want the Soviet to take power but the Soviet leaders wary of taking on the burden of government. The crowd becomes restless. Socialist Revolutionary leader Viktor Chernov is sent out to calm the crowd but manages to inflame its anger. “Take power when it’s handed to you, you son of a bitch!” shouts a furious worker, waving his fist in Chernov’s face. He starts to be manhandled and is only able to escape when the Bolshevik Trotsky intervenes on his behalf.

The crowd at the Tauride Palace begins to disperse. For want of anything better to do the Kronstadt sailors seize the Peter and Paul Fortress but it begins to look at though the revolutionary moment is passing.

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A crowd on Nevsky Prospect scatters as shooting breaks out (Wikipedia)