In the early hours of the morning the Bolshevik central committee meets. Yesterday’s failed crackdown by Kerensky has swung the Bolshevik leaders behind Lenin‘s call for an immediate seizure of power. As the day progresses troops and militia loyal to the Bolsheviks fan out across Petrograd and seize key points. By the evening the Provisional Government remains in the Winter Palace, surrounded by revolutionary troops and defended by an ever-dwindling band of loyalists.
The All-Russian Soviet Congress is meeting in Petrograd. It appears to be in favour of formation of a Soviet government, but one representing all revolutionary parties. But a walk-out by the Mensheviks and right faction of the Socialist Revolutionaries (SRs) leaves the Bolsheviks with a clear majority, thanks to the support of the left faction of the SRs. Trotsky scoffs at those who have left, consigning them to the “dustbin of history”.
In the Winter Palace, shelling from a Bolshevik gunboat causes the collapse of loyalist resistance. The Bolsheviks storm the building and arrest the Provisional Government, but not Kerensky who has somehow slipped out of the city. The former ministers are thrown into the cells of the Peter & Paul Fortress used previously to house the Tsar’s enemies.
While all this is happening the normal life of the city remains curiously unaffected. The trams continue to run and shops and theatres remain open. Opera performances take place that evening and upmarket restaurants continue to serve their clients, though the journalist John Reed reports being asked to move to a dining room at the back of his hotel for fear of stray bullets coming in the front.
Nevertheless, the Bolsheviks have now seized power, in Petrograd at least. They call their government the Council of People’s Commissars, abbreviated in Russian to Sovnarkom.
Red guards in the Winter Palace, by Ivan Vladimirov (Alpha History: the October Revolution)