2/8/1917 Disaster strikes the “Seeadler” #1917Live

The Seeadler is a German raider that has been preying on Allied shipping since it set sail in December disguised a Danish trader. Initially this three-masted sailing ship operated in the Atlantic but since April it has been prowling in the Pacific. The Allies are frustrated by the Seeadler‘s depredations and have sent warships to hunt it down, but to no avail. The Pacific is a big ocean and Luckner, the Seeadler‘s captain is adept at hiding in it.

But the sea has other dangers than enemy warships. After its long time at sea, Luckner brings the Seeadler to the lagoon of Mopelia, an isolated coral atoll, so that essential repairs can be carried out. Then unexpected disaster strikes. The ship is somehow wrecked against the island’s reef, perhaps (as Luckner will report) by a tsunami. The crew and their prisoners are able to escape to the island, carrying provisions and some equipment with them, but now Luckner and his men are marooned.

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The Seeadler‘s journey and locations of ships engaged (Wikipedia)

The wreck of the Seeadler (Naval History Homepage)

2/8/1917 German sailors mutiny in Wilhelmshaven #1917Live

Germany’s U-boat crews are fêted as heroes, for the country still hopes that their efforts will bring the war to a victorious end. Although the U-boat crews are being pushed to the limit, they enjoy an esprit de corps that allows them to endure what others would find unendurable. Things are different for the crews of Germany’s surface fleet. Since the Battle of Jutland last year, Germany’s battleships have remained in port, fearing annihilation at the hands of the British fleet. The naval crews are sitting out the war and their boredom leads them towards disaffection.

German sailors have many grounds for discontent. Their officers are aloof and uncaring and the navy enforces an iron discipline on the ships. Food is also an issue: although the officers eat well, rations for the rank and file are appalling. Moreover there is also anti-war and socialist agitation taking place among the sailors.

Throughout the summer disaffection has been escalating into incidents of low-level insubordination. Today though in an escalation several hundred sailors from two battleships stage a demonstration in Wilhelmshaven. Their demands are relatively innocuous but the naval authorities are alarmed. They quickly suppress the mutiny, arresting many sailors and prepare to court-martial the ringleaders.

For Germany’s leaders the Wilhelmshaven mutiny is a disturbing incident. They have watched with some delight as discipline breaks down in the Russian army, but Wilhelmshaven suggests that Germany’s own armed forces are not immune from rebelliousness.

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Sailors from the Prinzregent Luitpold, one of the ships affected by the mutiny (De Eerste Wereldoorlog 1914 – 1918: Muiterij op de Duitse oorlogsvloot in de zomer van 1917: hongeroproer of revolutiepoging? [The First World War 1914 – 1918: Mutiny in the German fleet in the summer of 1917: food riot or attempted revolution?])

Sailors’ protest march (De Eerste Wereldoorlog 1914 – 1918: Muiterij op de Duitse oorlogsvloot in de zomer van 1917: hongeroproer of revolutiepoging? [The First World War 1914 – 1918: Mutiny in the German fleet in the summer of 1917: food riot or attempted revolution?])

30/7/1917 German U-boat crews meet their July targets #1917Live

Germany’s U-boat campaign is now controversial, as Reichstag politicians have become sceptical about its ability to defeat Britain by the autumn. They are beginning to suspect that it has brought the USA into the war for nothing.

The U-boat crews themselves meanwhile are continuing to do their utmost. In the last month they have sunk another 600,000 tonnes of Allied shipping. According to the projections by Holtzendorff, the navy’s chief of staff, this rate of success should be enough to force Britain out of the war. However, although the British are hurting, there does not seem to be any obvious sign that they are about to collapse. For Germany it looks like the U-boat crews are doing all that was asked of them but that Holtzendorff has greatly underestimated the resilience of the enemy.

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US propaganda poster (Wikipedia)

6/7/1917 The U-boat war denounced in the Reichstag #1917Live

Germany’s U-boat campaign was meant to bring the war to a swift end. Instead it has brought the USA into the war against Germany and shows no sign of starving Britain into submission. Now there is increasing disquiet and a sense that the U-boat campaign has been a terrible mistake. This disquiet has penetrated to the ranks of parliamentarians who had previously been supportive of the government. Speaking before the Reichstag’s Steering Committee, Matthias Erzberger of the Centre Party today argues that the navy and the government sold the country a pup with the U-boat campaign, underestimating Britain’s resilience in the face of submarine warfare and peddling the false notion that the U-boats could force Britain out of the war in six months.

Erzberger’s U-boat scepticism is significant. His party, which represents Catholic interests, had backed the U-boat war on the strength of the navy’s assurances. With the Centre Party swinging against the U-boats the government of Bethmann Hollweg is now in trouble. To make matters worse, the Centre Party is now lending its support to those parties calling for a compromise peace to end the war.

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Matthias Erzberger (Spartacus International)

30/6/1917 Germany’s dawning realisation that the U-boat war has failed

Germany is trying to win the war with its escalated U-boat campaign. The U-boats have been given carte blanche to attack Allied merchant ships without warning. They are also authorised to attack ships flying neutral flags but suspected of carrying supplies to Allied countries. The Germans hope that the submarine war will reduce Britain to poverty and starvation, forcing it to make peace with Germany

Since the beginning of the escalated campaign in February the Germans have sunk an astonishing 3,844,000 tons of Allied shipping. Holtzendorff, the German navy’s chief of staff, has calculated that sinking 600,000 tons a month would be enough to cripple British trade. The U-boats have achieved these targets, sinking 670,000 tons in June alone, so surely this means that the British will soon be forced to make peace?

Yet the British do not appear to be on the brink of collapse. Holtzendorff appears to have miscalculated. The British have been able to increase domestic food production and through effective rationing are spreading food supplies relatively fairly (far more successfully than is the case in Germany). The U-boat campaign has not scared neutral shipping from the seas. Instead it has reduced the amount imported into the likes of Holland and Denmark for resale to Germany.

Allied countermeasures against the submarines are becoming more effective, with merchant ships increasingly sailing under protection in convoys and US and British destroyers patrolling more aggressively against the U-boats. It is starting to look as though the U-boat campaign is not going to end the war in the next few months. Tacitly recognising that the war will continue, the German navy now orders the construction of more U-boats, which will not be available for use until 1919.

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A merchant ship torpedoed (Military History Now: Sea Wolves Unleashed – Germany’s First U-boat War)

A U-boat surfaces (Military History Now: Sea Wolves Unleashed – Germany’s First U-boat War)

14/6/1917 The Seeadler claims its first American victim

German raiding ship the Seeadler has sailed from the Atlantic into the Pacific. In the heart of the sea the windjammer is somewhat cut off from events in the wider world, so its captain, Felix von Luckner, has only just learned that the United States has entered the war against Germany. The news does not dismay him for it greatly increases the number of enemy merchant ships he can attack. Today he sinks his first American ship, the A. B. Johnson. He hopes it will not be the last.

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The Seeadler, by Christopher Rave (Wikipedia)

31/5/1917 Another good month for the U-boats

Germany’s U-boats have had another good month, sinking some 670,000 tons of merchant shipping (a total including both Allied ships and neutral ships trading with the Allies). This is a good bit less than was achieved in April but is still very impressive.

Holtzendorff, the German navy’s chief of staff, has calculated that monthly shipping losses of 600,000 tons will force Britain out of the war. If his calculations are correct and these losses can be maintained then autumn should see Britain starved out of the war. With Russia in chaos and Italy not up to much that would effectively leave France to face the might of Germany alone.

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A U-boat puts to sea, garlanded with flowers (WW2 Weapons: Diary February 1, 1917)