Over the Western Front fliers contend in the skies in support of their comrades on the ground. A problem for the Germans is that they have less considerably aircraft than the Allies: in the skies they will always be outnumbered. Now they try a new tactic to ensure that they are able to achieve aerial dominance in key sectors. Manfred von Richthofen, the Red Baron, is given the command of four fighter squadrons, with the new super-unit given the name Jagdgeschwader 1 (JG 1). The idea is that this unit will be quickly deployable anywhere along the front to achieve local air superiority. Richthofen is authorised to recruit the best fighter pilots on the Western Front and to expel any who underperform.
JG 1 soon acquires a new nickname: the Flying Circus. Many of the aeroplanes are brightly coloured, with fliers emulating the red of Richthofen’s own aeroplane. The unit also travels from place to place by train, quickly setting up to take on the Allies before moving on to their next engagement, like a troupe of wandering entertainers. The cheerful connotations of the nickname are of course at odds with the murderous intent of the Flying Circus.
Manfred von Richthofen (Wikipedia)