1914 Who’s Who

I am generally grouping people under the country they belong to, even if they would like to belong to (or create) a different country. But I am not necessarily being completely consistent with this.

The vast majority of people on this list are men, which reflects the lack of women in decision-making positions of the time.

I will intermittently update this and link names to posts in which they are tagged.


Karl von Bienerth. Military attaché in Berlin
Leopold von Berchtold. Foreign minister
Svetozar Boroevic von Bojna. An Austro-Hungarian general in Galicia
Franz Conrad von Hötzendorf. Chief of staff of the Austro-Hungarian army
Franz Ferdinand. Heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary
Franz Josef. Emperor of Austria, King of Hungary, etc.
Wladimir Giesl von Gieslingen. Ambassador to Serbia
Alexander Hoyos. Senior foreign ministry official
Hermann Kusmanek von Burgneustädten. Commander of the garrison in Przemysl
Heinrich von Lützow. Retired foreign ministry official
Oskar Potiorek. Military governor of Bosnia-Herzegovina
Sophie. Morganatic wife of Franz Ferdinand
Wilhelm von Stork. Chargé d’affaires in Belgrade, in absence of Giesl
Friedrich Szapáry. Ambassador to Russia
Ladislaus Szögyény. Ambassador to Germany
Stefan Tisza. Hungarian prime minister
Friedrich Wiesner. Foreign Ministry legal counsel.


Albert. King of the Belgians.


Herbert Henry Asquith. Prime Minister
Louis of Battenberg. First Sea Lord
David Beatty. Commander of the Navy’s battlecruiser squadron
George Buchanan. Ambassador to Russia.
Winston Churchill. First Lord of the Admiralty
Eyre Crowe. Senior figure in the Foreign Office
Maurice De Bunsen. Ambassador to Austria-Hungary
George V. King of England, Scotland and Ireland etc.
John French. Commander of the British Expeditionary Force in France and Belgium
W. Edward Goschen. Ambassador to Germany
Sir Edward Grey. Foreign secretary
Alhaji Grunshi. First soldier of British army to fire on the enemy
David Lloyd George. Chancellor of the Exchequer
Horace Smith-Dorrien. Corps commander in British Expeditionary Force
Venetia Stanley. Aristocrat and socialite
Ernest Troubridge. Commander of British cruiser squadron in the Mediterranean
William Tyrrell. Private secretary to Edward Grey


Camille Barrère. Ambassador to Italy
Paul Cambon. Ambassador to Britain
Henriette Caillaux. Socialite, killer of Gaston Calmette, wife of Joseph Caillaux
Joseph Caillaux. Leader of the Radicals, husband of Henriette Caillaux
Joseph Joffre. Chief of staff of the army
Louis Franchet d’Espèrey. Subordinate commander in 5th Army
Joseph Gallieni. Commander of Paris garrison
Jean Jaurès. Leader of the SFIO, the French socialist party
Charles Lanrezac. Commander of 5th Army sent into Belgium
Michel-Joseph Maunoury. Commander of newly created 6th Army
Adolphe Messimy. War minister
Maurice Paléologue. Ambassador to Russia
Raymond Poincaré. President
René Viviani. Prime Minister and Foreign Minister


Klaus von Below-Selaske. Ambassador to Belgium
Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg. Chancellor
Karl von Bülow. Commander of 2nd Army in Belgium and France
Erich von Falkenhayn. War minister
Hermann von François. Commander of an army corps in East Prussia
Hugo Haase. Leader of the SPD, the German socialist party
Richard Hentsch. Staff officer for Moltke
Paul von Hindenburg. Recalled from retirement to take command in East Prussia
Franz von Hipper. Commander of the German Navy’s battlecruiser squadron
Max Hoffmann. Chief of staff to Maximilian von Prittwitz in East Prussia
Gottlieb von Jagow. Foreign minister
Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck. Military commander in German East Africa
Alexander von Kluck. Commander of 1st Army invading Belgium
Karl Max von Lichnowsky. Ambassador to Britain
Otto Liman von Sanders. Commander of the Turkish army
Erich Ludendorff. Commander of German assault on citadel at Liège
August von Mackensen. Corps commander in East Prussia and possessor of amazing hat
Helmuth von Moltke. Chief of staff of the German army
Karl von Müller. Captain of the SMS Emden
Maximilian von Prittwitz. German commander in East Prussia
Friedrich Pourtalès. Ambassador to Russia
Wilhelm von Schoen. Ambassador to France (Schön is a more correct spelling of his surname)
Wilhelm Souchon. Commander of the SMS Goeben
Maximilian von Spee. Commander of the Pacific cruiser squadron
Wilhelm von Stumm. Political director of the Foreign Ministry
Alfred von Tirpitz. Naval minister
Heinrich von Tschirschky. Ambassador to Austria-Hungary
Hans von Wangenheim. Ambassador to Turkey
Wilhelm II. Emperor of Germany, King of Prussia. The Kaiser.
Arthur Zimmermann. Deputy Foreign Minister


Antonio di San Giuliano. Foreign minister


Paul Eyschen. Prime Minister


Peter Bark. Finance minister
Alexander Benckendorff. Ambassador to Britain
Alexei Brusilov. Commander of 8th Army invading Galicia
K. E. Bützow. Senior foreign ministry official
Sergei Dobrolskii. Chief of army’s mobilisation section
Ludmilla Hartwig. Daughter of Russian ambassador to Serbia
Nikolai Hartwig. Russian ambassador to Serbia
Alexander Izvolsky. Ambassador to France
Nicholas II. Emperor of Russia; the Tsar; the Czar
Paul von Rennenkampf. Commander of 1st Army invading East Prussia
Alexander Samsonov. Commander of 2nd Army invading East Prussia
Sergei Sazonov. Foreign minister
Moritz Schilling. Chief of staff in foreign ministry
Nikolai Shebeko. Ambassador to Austria-Hungary
Vasily Strandman. Temporary head of Russian embassy in Serbia.
V. A. Sukhomlinov. War minister
General Nikolai Yanushkevitch. Army chief of staff
Nikolai Yudenich. Commander at Sarikamish


Prince Alexander. Regent
Nedjelko Chabrinovitch. Bosnian Serb and would-be killer of Franz Ferdinand
Danilo Ilitch. Bosnian Serb organiser of plot against Franz Ferdinand
Lazu Pacu. Finance minister
Nikola Pašić. Prime Minister
Gavrilo Princip. Bosnian Serb, killer of Franz Ferdinand
Radomir Putnik. Commander in chief of the Serbian army
Dr. M. Spalaikovitch. Serbian ambassador to Russia
Voja Tankositch. Co-founder of the Black Hand, an ultra-nationalist society

South Africa

Manie Maritz. Leader of pro-German Boer rebellion.

Turkey (also known as the Ottoman Empire)

Ismail Enver Pasha. Minister of War and one of the three pre-eminent leaders of Turkey
Said Halim Pasha. Grand Vizier
Ahmed Djemal Pasha. Minister of the Navy, Mayor of Constantinople and one of the three pre-eminent leaders of Turkey
Mehmet Talaat Pasha. Minister of the Interior and one of the three pre-eminent leaders of Turkey

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