March 1919

The Allies continue their deliberations in Paris while a hungry Germany sees further clashes between Spartacists and the Freikorps. Egypt revolts against its British master. A pro-Bolshevik regime comes to power in Hungary: is communism spreading across Europe?

2/3/1919 Preparing for world revolution: the first congress of the Communist International

6/3/1919 More clashes in Berlin between the Spartacists and Freikorps

6/3/1919 Sinn Féin prisoners released

7/3/1919 Germany continues to go hungry

9/3/1919 Unrest in Egypt: British heavy-handedness sparks revolution

12/3/1919 The Freikorps crush the Spartacists again

14/3/1919 Keeping Germany weak and France strong

18/3/1919 Egypt spirals out of British control

18/3/1919 Disputes over the Rhineland and Germany’s fleet

18/3/1919 Red Army blues

22/3/1919 Revolution in Hungary: a Soviet Republic proclaimed

26/3/1919 The first food shipment arrives in Germany

28/3/1919 Tense negotiations in Paris over Germany’s western frontiers

Communists celebrating the Hungarian revolution (Medium: In 1919 there was a state which lived only 133 days)

Egyptian demonstrators (Egyptian Revolution: 1919 Revolution)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918 & 1919

February 1919

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

15/3/1921 Justice catches up with Talaat Pasha

During the war Mehmed Talaat was one of the three paramount leaders of the Ottoman Empire. Together with Ahmed Djemal and Ismail Enver he brought Turkey into the war on Germany’s side and then played a leading role in directing a campaign of extermination against the empire’s Armenian community. Defeat has transformed Talaat into an exile.

Under Allied pressure Talaat and his fellows have been tried and sentenced to death in absentia by the Ottoman authorities, both for conspiring to bring the empire into a war that it could not win and for the mass killing and plundering of the Armenians. There seems little chance of the sentence being served on Talaat, who is now living in Germany. However, today a rough form of justice is served on him.

Armenian revolutionaries have been organising a campaign of assassination against leading organisers of the brutalities inflicted on their people. Their agents track Talaat down to Charlottenburg in Berlin. Soghomon Tehlirian, whose family was largely wiped out by the Turks, is given the job of killing Talaat. Today he strikes, despatching Talaat with a single bullet fired into the back of his head after confirming his identity. Tehlirian makes no attempt to escape and is taken into custody by the Berlin police.

My World War 1 blog finished two years ago, but when I saw that today was the 100th anniversary of the main architect of the Armenian Genocide it felt like a piece of the war’s unfinished business that merited marking. The aftermath of Talaat’s killing is intriguing – Tehlirian was put on trial for his murder but acquitted after a short trial on the grounds that that the horrors of the Armenian Genocide had rendered him temporarily insane. Tehlirian died in 1960 in the United States. Talaat’s body was eventually re-interred in Istanbul’s Monument of Liberty.

images:

Soghomon Tehlirian & Talaat Pasha (Armenian Youth Federation-WUS on Twitter)

New York Times report of Talaat’s killing (Wikipedia: Soghomon Tehlirian)

February 1919

Allied statesmen hear petitions and grapple with the world’s problems in Paris. Gunmen strike against a king and prime ministers. Brutal fighting continues the former Russian Empire. Irish nationalist leader Éamon de Valera escapes from an English jail. The Spanish Flu brings a third wave of pestilence to a weary world.

1/2/1919 Czechoslovakia

3/2/1919 Éamon de Valera busts out of Lincoln Jail

3/2/1919 Carving up Turkey

6/2/1919 Emir Faisal seeks a promised kingdom

13/2/1919 Japan’s racial equality proposal causes a sensation

14/2/1919 Progress in Paris on the League of Nations, deadlock on German reparations

15/2/1919 Pogrom in Proskurov: Ukrainian Cossacks massacre Jews

19/2/1919 The gun speaks: anarchist shoots Clemenceau

20/2/1919 The gun speaks: Afghanistan’s King assassinated

21/2/1919 The gun speaks: right wing fanatic kills Bavaria’s ousted prime minister

25/2/1919 More trouble in the west Balkans

26/2/1919 Influenza: the third wave

26/2/1919 Armenia asks to become an American mandate

27/2/1919 Zionist plans for Palestine

images:

Woodrow Wilson reading the draft covenant of the League of Nations to the Paris Conference (ResearchGate)

Cartoon from the Sunday Independent, 23 February 1919 (Century Ireland: Dublin struggles to cope with volume of flu deaths)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918 & 1919

January 1919

March 1919

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

January 1919

Germany’s far left defeated on the streets and at the ballot box. The Paris Conference opens. Squamous horror in Boston. Ireland’s escalating struggle for freedom.

3/1/1919 Emir Faisal and Chaim Weizmann reach an agreement on Palestine

4/1/1919 Kidnapping the Kaiser

6/1/1919 The Spartacists revolt: an October Revolution for Germany?

9/1/1919 As the Red Army advances, Latvia seeks German volunteers

10/1/1919 Turkey’s last army finally surrenders in Medina

11/1/1919 Freikorps militiamen crush the Spartacist revolt in Berlin

11/1/1919 The Prodrazvyorstka: Soviet Russia steps up confiscation of food from the peasantry

12/1/1919 Bavarian voters reject radical socialism

15/1/1919 The Great Boston Molasses Disaster

15/1/1919 Liebknecht and Luxemburg murdered by the Freikorps

18/1/1919 The Paris Conference opens

19/1/1919 Germany goes to the polls, rejecting the extremes of right and left

21/1/1919 Dáil Éireann and the Soloheadbeg ambush: political and military blows for Irish freedom

27/1/1919 Dividing up Germany’s colonies

29/1/1919 Stating Poland’s case

images:

Spartacists (Wikipedia: the Spartacist Uprising)

Opening session of the Paris Conference (Guardian: The Paris peace conference begins – archive, January 1919)

First meeting of the Dáil, self-declared national parliament of Ireland (Century Ireland: Dáil Éireann meets in Mansion House)

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918 & 1919

December 1918

February 1919

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

December 1918

Allied troops occupy the Rhineland. Britain and Ireland go to the polls, with women voting for the first time; the coalition wins a landslide in Britain while Sinn Féin sweeps Ireland. Street fighting in Berlin. Western Samoa decimated by influenza.

10/12/1919 Ebert hails the undefeated German army

10/12/1918 Sarafand: New Zealanders massacre Palestinian villagers

14/12/1918 Britain votes

14/12/1918 Ireland also votes

14/12/1918 Portugal’s President assassinated

16/12/1918 German troops evacuate Finland; Friedrich Karl of Hesse renounces the Finnish throne

24/12/1918 Striking back against the Bolsheviks: Kolchak routs the Red Army and storms Perm
24/12/1918 Berlin’s Christmas Eve Battle

28/12/1918 Britain’s votes are counted: Lloyd George’s coalition wins a landslide victory

28/12/1918 Ireland’s election results: Sinn Féin landslide and the first woman elected to the House of Commons

31/12/1918 Pestilence in Samoa

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

November 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

images:

Women voting (Irish Times – “Remembering the events of 1918 gives us a timely opportunity to consider again what it means to be Irish”)

Members of the People’s Naval Division in Berlin (TAZ: Die vergessenen Revolutionäre)

Samoan influenza obituaries (New Zealand History)

November 1918

Revolution in Germany! The Kaiser overthrown! Armistice on the Western Front. Austria-Hungary also throws in the towel and begins to disappear off the map.

1/11/1918 Maintaining the pressure on the Western Front

1/11/1918 As one war comes to an end, another begins

1/11/1918 Sailors mutiny in Kiel, unrest spreads across Germany, but the Kaiser will not abandon Germany in its hour of need

2/11/1918 Italy presents its armistice terms to Austria-Hungary

3/11/1918 The Kiel mutiny escalates and unrest spreads across Germany, but the Kaiser again declines to abdicate

3/11/1918 Austria-Hungary’s army messes up its own capitulation

4/11/1918 The Red Flag flies over Kiel

4/11/1918 The Italian Front armistice comes into effect

5/11/1918 The end draws near: Wilson tells the Germans that Foch has been authorised to receive their armistice delegation

7/11/1918 Spreading revolution in Germany leads to the flight of Bavaria’s King and calls for the Kaiser’s abdication

7/11/1918 The ship of death arrives in German Samoa

7/11/1918 Germany’s armistice negotiators cross the lines

8/11/1918 Showdown at Compiègne: Foch presents the Allies’ armistice terms to the Germans

8/11/1918 Bavaria becomes a republic but the Kaiser insists that Germany will not lost its Emperor nor Prussia its King

9/11/1918 Erzberger remonstrates with Foch, in vain

9/11/1918 Germany overthrows the Kaiser

10/11/1918 Canadian troops close in on Mons

10/11/1918 Ebert tells Erzberger to accept the Allied armistice terms

11/11/1918 The armistice is signed

11/11/1918 The guns stop firing, too late for some

11/11/1918 Italy’s returning prisoners receive a less than warm welcome

11/11/1918 Emperor Karl renounces power without abdicating as his empire dissolves

11/11/1918 Celebrating the end of the fighting

13/11/1918 Constantinople occupied

18/11/1918 Meanwhile in Russia…

21/11/1918 The German fleet sails into captivity

22/11/1918 Polish victory at Lemberg is followed by a pogrom against the city’s Jews

25/11/1918 After 50 years, France recovers Strasbourg

25/11/1918 Germany’s last field army surrenders as Lettow-Vorbeck lays down his arms


see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

October 1918

December 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

image sources

Marshal Foch and other Allied armistice negotiators (Wikipedia: Armistice of 11 November 1918)

The German Republic proclaimed (Wikipedia: German Revolution of 1918–1919)

American troops celebrate the Western Front armistice (Wikipedia: Armistice of 11 November 1918)

October 1918

Italy finally attacks. Turkey drops out of the war and Austria-Hungary begins to disintegrate. Ludendorff sacked as Germany’s quartermaster-general amidst collapsing army morale and German requests for an armistice.

1/10/1918 The fall of Damascus

2/10/1918 Western Front: in the north Germany retreats, while in the Argonne the “Lost Battalion” gets lost

3/10/1918 Allenby lays down the law to Faisal

3/10/1918 Germany requests an armistice

4/10/1918 Cher Ami, brave pigeon of the Argonne

5/10/1918 Star French aviator Roland Garros shot down

7/10/1918 New states begin to emerge from the ashes of German and Austro-Hungarian defeat

7/10/1918 Haig and Foch scent victory, the Americans finally rescue their Lost Battalion

7/10/1918 Twilight of the Komuch

8/10/1918 As French troops land in Beirut, the Turkish government resigns

9/10/1918 A German king for Finland

9/10/1918 As Canadian troops recover Cambrai, Wilson’s reply to Prince Max’s note arrives in Berlin

10/10/1918 The sinking of the RMS Leinster

12/10/1918 Prince Max replies to Wilson, accepting the Fourteen Points and need to evacuate Allied territory

14/10/1918 Allied gains force a German withdrawal from the Belgian coast

14/10/1918 Wilson demands an end to the U-boat war

16/10/1918 The People’s Manifesto: Emperor Karl’s desperate attempt to reform his empire

17/10/1918 German morale buckles as the Allied advance continues

17/10/1918 Wilson’s note causes consternation in Berlin

18/10/1918 Italy prepares to attack Austria-Hungary

20/10/1918 As a concession to Wilson, Germany calls off the U-boats

20/10/1918 Lansing’s note to Vienna: the writing on the wall for Austria-Hungary

21/10/1918 As Wilson recognises the Czechoslovaks, Austria’s Germans seek their own nation

23/10/1918 With British help, the Italians prepare to cross the Piave

24/10/1918 A developing rupture between Prince Max’s government and Ludendorff’s army

24/10/1918 The German navy prepares for a glorious last battle

24/10/1918 Italy attacks Monte Grappa: more blood spilled for minimal gains

25/10/1918 As the Belgian King returns to Bruges, Allied commanders discuss armistice terms

25/10/1918 Hungarian leaders demand the return of their troops as the Austro-Hungarian army calls for an armistice

26/10/1918 Aleppo falls to the British

26/10/1918 As Allied leaders discuss armistice terms, the Kaiser sacks Ludendorff

27/10/1918 Italian troops surge across the Piave as Hungary moves towards independence

28/10/1918 Boroevic prepares for Austria-Hungary’s last stand

28/10/1918 As his empire disintegrates, Emperor Karl requests an armistice

29/10/1918 Mutiny breaks out in the German fleet

29/10/1918 The Austro-Hungarians retreat to the Italian border

30/10/1918 National revolution in Hungary

30/10/1918 The Armistice of Mudros: Turkey exits the war

30/10/1918 Vittorio Veneto recaptured, Monte Grappa outflanked

31/10/1918 The nationalists take over in Budapest and settle accounts with Count Tisza

31/10/1918 The cold grip of influenza

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

September 1918

November 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

images:

Crowds in Prague’s Wenceslas Square as Czechoslovak independence is proclaimed (The World of the Hasburgs – The Day of the Coup: 28 October 1918)

The King of Belgium returns to liberated Bruges (Wikipedia – Battle of Courtrai (1918))

September 1918

Allied offensives smash Germany’s allies and defeat on the Western Front forces Germany’s leaders to accept that the war is lost. Red terror unleashed in Russia. The second wave of the influenza pandemic.

2/9/1918 Allied successes force a German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line

3/9/1918 As Lenin recovers, the Cheka unleashes Red Terror

6/9/1918 Allied advance slows as the Germans withdraw to the Hindenburg Line

10/9/1918 Kazan: the Red Army pushes back against the Czechoslovak Legion

12/9/1918 St. Mihiel: US troops smash the Germans

14/9/1918 Emperor Karl seeks peace, in vain

15/9/1918 The Vardar offensive: Allied breakthrough against the Bulgarians

15/9/1918 Massacres in Baku as the city falls to the Turks

16/9/1918 The more deadly return of the influenza pandemic

17/9/1918 US victory at St. Mihiel see the Germans shaken and Pershing disappointed at missed opportunities

19/9/1918 Megiddo: Allenby’s breakthrough in Palestine

21/9/1918 Turkish collapse in Palestine

23/9/1918 Bulgaria’s Balkan disaster

23/9/1918 Allenby decides to have another crack at Amman

25/9/1918 As his men take Amman, Allenby prepares to march on Damascus

26/9/1918 The forest of death: the Americans attack into the Argonne

27/9/1918 Canadian troops storm the Canal du Nord, prepare to march on Cambrai

28/9/1918 Fifth Ypres: another drubbing for the Germans

28/9/1918 Ludendorff cracks and demands an immediate armistice

29/9/1918 Bulgaria throws in the towel

29/9/1918 Deadlock in the Argonne

29/9/1918 St. Quentin Canal: piercing the Hindenburg Line

29/9/1918 Germany’s “Revolution from Above”

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

August 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)
images:

Wounded German prisoners and their American captors at St. Mihiel (The Zine, Diplomatic Pouch — The Hundred Last Days, Part 2: September 1918)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Central Powers In Collapse)

August 1918

The Black Day of the German Army: the German sword breaks and the Allies go on the offensive.

4/8/1918 Gaelic Sunday: Irish athletes defy the British Empire

5/8/1918 Allied intervention in Russia and the defence of Baku

6/8/1918 Victory at the Marne paves way for planned Allied offensive at Amiens

8/8/1918 Amiens: the Black Day of the German Army

9/8/1918 D’Annunzio’s flight over Vienna

11/8/1918 Further Allied gains at Amiens

14/8/1918 Hindenburg and Ludendorff block peace talks

21/8/1918 Britain attacks on the Somme as Haig begins to scent victory

29/8/1918 Bapaume falls to the Allies

30/8/1918 Lenin shot

31/8/1918 Australian victory on the Somme, Foch prepares the next round of offensives

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

July 1918

September 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

images:

German prisoners, 8 August 1918 (Wikipedia: Battle of Amiens)

German prisoners, 27 August 1918 (Wikipedia: Battle of Amiens)

July 1918

Germany’s last offensive fails. The Tsar and his family are murdered. The Allies prepare to attack.


1/7/1918 Writing on the wall for Austria-Hungary as France declares support for an independent Czechoslovakia

3/7/1918 “Wholesale jollification”: Lettow-Vorbeck’s victory at Nhamacurra

3/7/1918 The death of Mehmed V of Turkey

4/7/1918 Hamel: a local victory for the Australians and a worrying portent for the Germans

6/7/1918 The Left SR uprising: a deadly threat to the Bolsheviks at the heart of their power

7/7/1918 The Bolshevik regime secure once more as the Left SR uprising fizzles out

9/7/1918 The dangerous folly of low level acrobatics

15/7/1918 Round Five: Ludendorff’s Peace Offensive

17/7/1918 The sinking of the Carpathia

17/7/1918 The Tsar and his family killed

18/7/1918 2nd Marne: the French strike back

22/7/1918 Ludendorff shaken as French troops advance across the Marne

24/7/1918 Foch meets the Allied commanders, calls for them to go on the attack

26/7/1918 The last flight of Mick Mannock, Britain’s highest scoring fighter ace

29/7/1918 Trotsky drafts the Tsar’s officers

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

June 1918

August 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

images

German prisoners, July 1918 (Wikipedia Commons)

1926 depiction of the Tsar’s murder (History: Why Czar Nicholas II and the Romanovs Were Murdered)