November 1918

Revolution in Germany! The Kaiser overthrown! Armistice on the Western Front. Austria-Hungary also throws in the towel and begins to disappear off the map.

1/11/1918 Maintaining the pressure on the Western Front

1/11/1918 As one war comes to an end, another begins

1/11/1918 Sailors mutiny in Kiel, unrest spreads across Germany, but the Kaiser will not abandon Germany in its hour of need

2/11/1918 Italy presents its armistice terms to Austria-Hungary

3/11/1918 The Kiel mutiny escalates and unrest spreads across Germany, but the Kaiser again declines to abdicate

3/11/1918 Austria-Hungary’s army messes up its own capitulation

4/11/1918 The Red Flag flies over Kiel

4/11/1918 The Italian Front armistice comes into effect

5/11/1918 The end draws near: Wilson tells the Germans that Foch has been authorised to receive their armistice delegation

7/11/1918 Spreading revolution in Germany leads to the flight of Bavaria’s King and calls for the Kaiser’s abdication

7/11/1918 The ship of death arrives in German Samoa

7/11/1918 Germany’s armistice negotiators cross the lines

8/11/1918 Showdown at Compiègne: Foch presents the Allies’ armistice terms to the Germans

8/11/1918 Bavaria becomes a republic but the Kaiser insists that Germany will not lost its Emperor nor Prussia its King

9/11/1918 Erzberger remonstrates with Foch, in vain

9/11/1918 Germany overthrows the Kaiser

10/11/1918 Canadian troops close in on Mons

10/11/1918 Ebert tells Erzberger to accept the Allied armistice terms

11/11/1918 The armistice is signed

11/11/1918 The guns stop firing, too late for some

11/11/1918 Italy’s returning prisoners receive a less than warm welcome

11/11/1918 Emperor Karl renounces power without abdicating as his empire dissolves

11/11/1918 Celebrating the end of the fighting

13/11/1918 Constantinople occupied

18/11/1918 Meanwhile in Russia…

21/11/1918 The German fleet sails into captivity

22/11/1918 Polish victory at Lemberg is followed by a pogrom against the city’s Jews

25/11/1918 After 50 years, France recovers Strasbourg

25/11/1918 Germany’s last field army surrenders as Lettow-Vorbeck lays down his arms


see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

October 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

image sources

Marshal Foch and other Allied armistice negotiators (Wikipedia: Armistice of 11 November 1918)

The German Republic proclaimed (Wikipedia: German Revolution of 1918–1919)

American troops celebrate the Western Front armistice (Wikipedia: Armistice of 11 November 1918)

October 1918

Italy finally attacks. Turkey drops out of the war and Austria-Hungary begins to disintegrate. Ludendorff sacked as Germany’s quartermaster-general amidst collapsing army morale and German requests for an armistice.

1/10/1918 The fall of Damascus

2/10/1918 Western Front: in the north Germany retreats, while in the Argonne the “Lost Battalion” gets lost

3/10/1918 Allenby lays down the law to Faisal

3/10/1918 Germany requests an armistice

4/10/1918 Cher Ami, brave pigeon of the Argonne

5/10/1918 Star French aviator Roland Garros shot down

7/10/1918 New states begin to emerge from the ashes of German and Austro-Hungarian defeat

7/10/1918 Haig and Foch scent victory, the Americans finally rescue their Lost Battalion

7/10/1918 Twilight of the Komuch

8/10/1918 As French troops land in Beirut, the Turkish government resigns

9/10/1918 A German king for Finland

9/10/1918 As Canadian troops recover Cambrai, Wilson’s reply to Prince Max’s note arrives in Berlin

10/10/1918 The sinking of the RMS Leinster

12/10/1918 Prince Max replies to Wilson, accepting the Fourteen Points and need to evacuate Allied territory

14/10/1918 Allied gains force a German withdrawal from the Belgian coast

14/10/1918 Wilson demands an end to the U-boat war

16/10/1918 The People’s Manifesto: Emperor Karl’s desperate attempt to reform his empire

17/10/1918 German morale buckles as the Allied advance continues

17/10/1918 Wilson’s note causes consternation in Berlin

18/10/1918 Italy prepares to attack Austria-Hungary

20/10/1918 As a concession to Wilson, Germany calls off the U-boats

20/10/1918 Lansing’s note to Vienna: the writing on the wall for Austria-Hungary

21/10/1918 As Wilson recognises the Czechoslovaks, Austria’s Germans seek their own nation

23/10/1918 With British help, the Italians prepare to cross the Piave

24/10/1918 A developing rupture between Prince Max’s government and Ludendorff’s army

24/10/1918 The German navy prepares for a glorious last battle

24/10/1918 Italy attacks Monte Grappa: more blood spilled for minimal gains

25/10/1918 As the Belgian King returns to Bruges, Allied commanders discuss armistice terms

25/10/1918 Hungarian leaders demand the return of their troops as the Austro-Hungarian army calls for an armistice

26/10/1918 Aleppo falls to the British

26/10/1918 As Allied leaders discuss armistice terms, the Kaiser sacks Ludendorff

27/10/1918 Italian troops surge across the Piave as Hungary moves towards independence

28/10/1918 Boroevic prepares for Austria-Hungary’s last stand

28/10/1918 As his empire disintegrates, Emperor Karl requests an armistice

29/10/1918 Mutiny breaks out in the German fleet

29/10/1918 The Austro-Hungarians retreat to the Italian border

30/10/1918 National revolution in Hungary

30/10/1918 The Armistice of Mudros: Turkey exits the war

30/10/1918 Vittorio Veneto recaptured, Monte Grappa outflanked

31/10/1918 The nationalists take over in Budapest and settle accounts with Count Tisza

31/10/1918 The cold grip of influenza

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

September 1918

November 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

images:

Crowds in Prague’s Wenceslas Square as Czechoslovak independence is proclaimed (The World of the Hasburgs – The Day of the Coup: 28 October 1918)

The King of Belgium returns to liberated Bruges (Wikipedia – Battle of Courtrai (1918))

September 1918

Allied offensives smash Germany’s allies and defeat on the Western Front forces Germany’s leaders to accept that the war is lost. Red terror unleashed in Russia. The second wave of the influenza pandemic.

2/9/1918 Allied successes force a German withdrawal to the Hindenburg Line

3/9/1918 As Lenin recovers, the Cheka unleashes Red Terror

6/9/1918 Allied advance slows as the Germans withdraw to the Hindenburg Line

10/9/1918 Kazan: the Red Army pushes back against the Czechoslovak Legion

12/9/1918 St. Mihiel: US troops smash the Germans

14/9/1918 Emperor Karl seeks peace, in vain

15/9/1918 The Vardar offensive: Allied breakthrough against the Bulgarians

15/9/1918 Massacres in Baku as the city falls to the Turks

16/9/1918 The more deadly return of the influenza pandemic

17/9/1918 US victory at St. Mihiel see the Germans shaken and Pershing disappointed at missed opportunities

19/9/1918 Megiddo: Allenby’s breakthrough in Palestine

21/9/1918 Turkish collapse in Palestine

23/9/1918 Bulgaria’s Balkan disaster

23/9/1918 Allenby decides to have another crack at Amman

25/9/1918 As his men take Amman, Allenby prepares to march on Damascus

26/9/1918 The forest of death: the Americans attack into the Argonne

27/9/1918 Canadian troops storm the Canal du Nord, prepare to march on Cambrai

28/9/1918 Fifth Ypres: another drubbing for the Germans

28/9/1918 Ludendorff cracks and demands an immediate armistice

29/9/1918 Bulgaria throws in the towel

29/9/1918 Deadlock in the Argonne

29/9/1918 St. Quentin Canal: piercing the Hindenburg Line

29/9/1918 Germany’s “Revolution from Above”

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

August 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)
images:

Wounded German prisoners and their American captors at St. Mihiel (The Zine, Diplomatic Pouch — The Hundred Last Days, Part 2: September 1918)

map (Mental Floss WWI Centennial: Central Powers In Collapse)

August 1918

The Black Day of the German Army: the German sword breaks and the Allies go on the offensive.

4/8/1918 Gaelic Sunday: Irish athletes defy the British Empire

5/8/1918 Allied intervention in Russia and the defence of Baku

6/8/1918 Victory at the Marne paves way for planned Allied offensive at Amiens

8/8/1918 Amiens: the Black Day of the German Army

9/8/1918 D’Annunzio’s flight over Vienna

11/8/1918 Further Allied gains at Amiens

14/8/1918 Hindenburg and Ludendorff block peace talks

21/8/1918 Britain attacks on the Somme as Haig begins to scent victory

29/8/1918 Bapaume falls to the Allies

30/8/1918 Lenin shot

31/8/1918 Australian victory on the Somme, Foch prepares the next round of offensives

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

July 1918

September 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

images:

German prisoners, 8 August 1918 (Wikipedia: Battle of Amiens)

German prisoners, 27 August 1918 (Wikipedia: Battle of Amiens)

July 1918

Germany’s last offensive fails. The Tsar and his family are murdered. The Allies prepare to attack.


1/7/1918 Writing on the wall for Austria-Hungary as France declares support for an independent Czechoslovakia

3/7/1918 “Wholesale jollification”: Lettow-Vorbeck’s victory at Nhamacurra

3/7/1918 The death of Mehmed V of Turkey

4/7/1918 Hamel: a local victory for the Australians and a worrying portent for the Germans

6/7/1918 The Left SR uprising: a deadly threat to the Bolsheviks at the heart of their power

7/7/1918 The Bolshevik regime secure once more as the Left SR uprising fizzles out

9/7/1918 The dangerous folly of low level acrobatics

15/7/1918 Round Five: Ludendorff’s Peace Offensive

17/7/1918 The sinking of the Carpathia

17/7/1918 The Tsar and his family killed

18/7/1918 2nd Marne: the French strike back

22/7/1918 Ludendorff shaken as French troops advance across the Marne

24/7/1918 Foch meets the Allied commanders, calls for them to go on the attack

26/7/1918 The last flight of Mick Mannock, Britain’s highest scoring fighter ace

29/7/1918 Trotsky drafts the Tsar’s officers

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

June 1918

August 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

images

German prisoners, July 1918 (Wikipedia Commons)

1926 depiction of the Tsar’s murder (History: Why Czar Nicholas II and the Romanovs Were Murdered)

June 1918

German offensives on the Western Front blocked. The cold grip of influenza. More and more Americans. Austria-Hungary’s disastrous attack across the Piave. More turmoil in Russia.

1/6/1918 Beethoven comes to Japan

1/6/1918 Roderic Dallas is promoted too late

4/6/1918 Pemberton Billing wins “Cult of the Clitoris” libel trial

4/6/1918 Trotsky: “Long Live Civil War!”

6/6/1918 US troops halt one German offensive as Ludendorff prepares another

7/6/1918 Influenza spreads its tentacles

8/6/1918 The Komuch: an anti-Bolshevik government in Siberia, supported by the Czechoslovaks

9/6/1918 Round four: Ludendorff unleashes Operation Gneisenau

10/6/1918 Austria-Hungary’s failed naval breakout

10/6/1918 Vorontsovka: Germany and Turkey come to blows

11/6/1918 French counterattack blocks Germany’s latest offensive

13/6/1918 An inconvenient Grand Duke meets his end

15/6/1918 Austria-Hungary attacks across the Piave

16/6/1918 Failure on the Piave for Austria-Hungary

17/6/1918 Ludendorff prepares for Round Five

19/6/1918 Italy strikes back on the Piave river

19/6/1918 Francesco Baracca’s last patrol over the Piave

20/6/1918 Arthur Griffith wins East Cavan by-election from his English prison cell

21/6/1918 Austria-Hungary retreats across the Piave

23/6/1918 Piave: for Italy a triumph, for Austria-Hungary disaster

25/6/1918 US Marines clear the Germans from Belleau Wood

28/6/1918 In response to industrial unrest the Bolsheviks nationalise industry

29/6/1918 Vladivostok falls to the Czechoslovak Legion

30/6/1918 Time begins to run out for the Germans

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

May 1918

July 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

image sources:

German machine gunners advance (German History in Documents and Image – Advance of a German Machine Gun Unit on the Western Front (June 1918))

Ludendorff’s first four offensives (100 Years Ago Today, @CenturyAgoToday on Twitter)

US Marines attacking in Belleau Wood (War on the Rocks: The importance of the Battle of Belleau Wood)

Europe and the Near East, June 1918 (Mental Floss WW1 Centennial: Austria Hungary’s last gasp)

May 1918

Civil war escalates in Russia but comes to an end in Finland. British forces round up malcontents accused of preparing for German invasion of Ireland. After a lull, Ludendorff’s third offensive smashes the French. And American troops receive their baptism of fire.

4/5/1918 Turkey in the ascendant as the British retreat across the Jordan

6/5/1918 Ludendorff ponders his next move

7/5/1918 Romania agrees to harsh peace terms with Germany

9/5/1918 Britain raids Ostend again

9/5/1918 Bolshevik problems: sulky workers and stingy peasants

11/5/1918 Emperor Karl takes his punishment

12/5/1918 Alienated Cossacks revolt against the Bolsheviks

14/5/1918 The Chelyabinsk Incident: violence breaks out between the Czechoslovak Legion and the Bolsheviks

14/5/1918 Diaz reforms the Italian army but angers Foch by refusing to attack

16/5/1918 Finland’s Whites celebrate victory as the civil war comes to an end

17/5/1918 Sinn Féin leaders arrested as Britain strikes against “German plot”

19/5/1918 The last Gotha bombing raid on London

19/5/1918 Gervais Lufbery’s fatal fall

21/5/1918 Ludendorff’s gaze turns to India

23/5/1918 The former Tsar and Tsarina are joined in Ekaterinburg by their children

25/5/1918 Trotsky orders the Czechoslovak Legion’s suppression

26/5/1918 Georgia exits the Transcaucasian Federation

27/5/1918 Blücher-Yorck: German stormtroopers smash the French

28/5/1918 Hubert Rees meets the Kaiser

28/5/1918 Cantigny: US troops have their baptism of fire

31/5/1918 A new French tank

see also:

Monthly Archive 1918

April 1918

June 1918

@ww1liveblog (Twitter)

World War 1 Live Blog (Facebook)

image source:

map (Mental Floss – Erik Sass’s WWI Centennial: America’s Fighting Debut)

Some thoughts on the film “1917” (2019)

Secret Panda

I saw this Sam Mendes directed film in the IFI back in the Before-Time. As you know, it deals with an imaginary episode from the eponymous year, where two soldiers are sent running to halt a British advance into a carefully laid German trap. As such the premise subverts some of the clichés of First World War films, which more usually feature callous or delusional generals sending the lower ranks off to certain death.

For me much of the film’s appeal lies with the Roger Deakins cinematography – as with everything he touches, it looks amazing and keeps managing to present stunningly composed shots and images to the viewer. The attack scene at the end is obviously one such, but there are many others. The strange scene in the woods where a unit’s commander sings the folk song ‘I Am A Poor Wayfaring stranger’ to his men before they attack…

View original post 529 more words

Dark Corners: “Westfront 1918” (1930)

Over on my other blog I wrote about a German film from 1930 set in 1918 as the tide begins to turn in favour of the Allies.

Secret Panda

Nearly three years ago the Irish Film Institute hosted the Dark Corners season of films from the Weimar Republic. I wrote about them in the pages of popular journal Frank’s APA and now at last I am sharing my thoughts on these films with you, starting with this one. Popular films like Cabaret have fixed Weimar in the public mind as a period of decadent excess that almost deserved to be swept away by the Nazis. Weimar cinema meanwhile is usually associated with expressionism (funny camera angles, strange sets, fantastic plots), but the programming of this season attempted to present a broader picture of the films produced in that era. Old favourites like Dr Mabuse, Caligari, Nosferatu and Metropolis were avoided in favour of other types of picture, particularly ones showcasing the New Objectivity style of the 1920s, though they did still show expressionist classic Der Golem (which…

View original post 489 more words

Whither Great War Live?

Readers will have noticed that I stopped updating this blog on 28 June 2019, the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Treaty of Versailles. That was always the end point I had in mind for this project, even though much at that point still remained unresolved – notably the future shape of Turkey, the fate of Russia, the status of Ireland (my own country) and indeed whether the United States would join the League of Nations. I could have continued the blog further but the Treaty’s signing on the anniversary of Franz Ferdinand’s murder was too convenient a stopping point, and any continuation beyond that point would have meant a dissipation of focus away from the First World War itself.

So is that the end of this blog? Basically, yes. I had hoped to occasionally treat readers to reviews of Great War related books, but other demands on my time have left these hopes unrealised. I have also failed to produce short notes on some general Great War topics (whose fault was the war, why did the Allies win, could the war have turned out differently, and so on). These may yet appear though if they do it will be a pleasant surprise.

One thing however I am going to do is complete the posts I had been doing compiling each month’s worth of posts in one place (you can see links to these for the years 1914 to 1916 here and 1917 here). Pressure of time in the early summer of 2018 forced me to abandon these, with the April 1918 post being the last one on the blog. I was never that clear whether anyone read these (which is true of posts on the blog generally), but as a completist I feel the need to finish these off, so I am going to post the remaining ones of these month by month from the end of May this year to June 2021. I have created a page for links to these monthly summary posts for 1918 here, should readers wish to catch up on what was going on in the spring of 1918 (summary: Germany was trying to win the war before the arrival of American troops irrevocably turned the tide in the Allies’ favour).

If you are interested, I also have another blog, on which I post occasionally about books and films and music and stuff.

images all from Giant Military Cats on Twitter, which I recommend to anyone who likes both cats and military things.